In this world, only time and travel cannot be disappointed.
The scenery in the book and the world in the mouth of others can only be more exciting if you take your own body and mind to experience it!
For example, Riyuexia's miles!
Three trips, consciously or unintentionally, have traveled through three major regional cultures in China: Dunhuang Studies, Tibetan Studies, and Hui Studies.
In this article, I will share with you the art of Huixue, one of the three major regional cultures.
The hidden house is the essence of Hui architecture.
The connotation of culture is naturally very rich. Then Hui architecture is one of the key points of "Huiology".
The home that lives every day is the most important space in people's lives. Its style is a culture. It has the aura of mountains and rivers, and the essence of customs.
For a long time, the Hui school architecture has its own unique style, and its structure is completely different from the northern residential buildings we are familiar with.
Among them, the dwelling houses, shrines and archways are the most typical, known as the "Three Must-Have Ancient Buildings in Huizhou", which are valued and admired by the Chinese and foreign architectural circles.
Shan Shiyuan's Shushanmen horizontal plaque: Qiankou House
Qiankou House is located at the southern foot of Zixia Peak, Huangshan City, Anhui Province, also known as Zixia Villa, a poetic name.
Not only poetic, but also very connotative.
Qiankou Minority House has a long history. It is a typical Hui ancient building that was originally protected in 1984, and it was originally built in the same way. It includes 13 buildings of different types in the Ming Dynasty and 11 buildings in the Qing Dynasty.
Now that culture is mentioned, let's start with the name. Do you think the name "dive mouth" is a bit strange? In fact, it is quite meaningful.
The word Qiankou has two meanings. One is to commemorate Tao Yuanming's retreat, and the other refers to the mouth of the mountains, where Wanfeng lurks behind. It is called Qianqian or Qiankou. It is also the main point to enter the Huangshan area.
Qiankou House is divided into two parts, Ming Garden and Qing Garden. It contains the most typical ancient buildings of the Ming and Qing dynasties, ancient ancestral halls, ancient arches, ancient pavilions, ancient bridges and other ancient buildings, as well as ancient trees, wells, and plaques dating back more than 500 years. It is extremely important. Historical value, artistic value, and scientific value are precious examples of the study of the history and architecture of Chinese ancient architecture. It is hailed as "the living monograph of folk art of the Ming Dynasty in China" and "a model of highly harmonious and unified human and natural landscapes."
Having said so much, below, with an eager and curious heart, let's walk into Qiankou's house together to taste the endless charm of the "blue brick little tile horse head wall, the corridor with hanging lattice windows".
Mr. Shan Shiyuan, a well-known expert in ancient architecture and deputy director of the Palace Museum, once sighed, "Watch the palace go to Beijing, see the houses to the submarine."
The pink wall dais chanting around the beams finally became a solidified movement in the smoky rain in the mountains. The music is a flowing building, and the buildings here are undulating into a stream of high mountains.
The most prominent part of the "deep mouth house" is the part of the Ming Garden, which is the epitome of the Ming dwellings.
This is the beautiful scenery in the garden after entering the gate of Ming Garden.
Enter the Ming Garden and walk up the stairs, you will see an ancient and small stone bridge: Yinxiu Bridge
It has been in existence for nearly 500 years and was built by the local nuns. It is a model of a small single-hole stone arch bridge in Huizhou in the Ming Dynasty.
The three characters "Yinxiu Bridge" are half carved and half carved. The center of the bridge becomes the boundary between Buddha and human. Therefore, it is also called "Yin Yang Bridge". Arhat board. Years passed, Xiaoqiao still said, "The teacher doesn't know where to go, Luo Han still laughs at the spring breeze." Its engraving on the gantry plate is intriguing and has high artistic value. "
The Ming Garden was built on a hillside. The residential houses were built on the hillside, and the masonry was built and maintained along the road along the slope. The left side of the picture is the brick foundation of the slope.
The houses are all higher than the sidewalk, and there are steps in front of the door.
House door foreground image
The bluestone pavement was paved with large strips of stone in the village, and decorative patterns were inlaid with small goose eggs. The gap between the stones is the best channeling system. Even in the heavy rain, there will be no muddy and difficult to move. That is beautiful, and it greatly facilitates the visit of tourists.
This is also a pedestrian road, with subgrades made of masonry on both sides, which is much higher than the road and plays a protective role in slope building.
The curving road in the park brought tourists to the door of each house. Here, there are houses of ordinary farmers, private owners, wealthy businessmen, government officials and politicians.
Su Xuechen's house, a brick and wood structure residential building in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, a triple courtyard, 3 rooms wide, two inside and outside, there is a building.
Let's start with the characteristics and feel the characteristics of this Hui architecture, first look at the facade.
The facades of Huizhou residential buildings are not large. Huizhou people have always been known for their gentleness and implicitness. But there are steps in front of the door, and there are blue bricks on the facade to make decoration.
Anhui ancient architecture, the three carvings are the most famous. There are exquisite brick carvings on the front door, detailed stone carvings on both sides of the door, and various patterns of wood carvings inside the house. In this regard, we also appreciate the exquisiteness of brick carving.
Hu Yongji House, a brick and timber structure building in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. Hu Yongji was originally from Tonglu County, Zhejiang Province, and later moved to a submarine in Huizhou District.
In Huizhou, generally the people with a little strength, the eaves, stone carvings, brick carvings, etc. on the facade are becoming more sophisticated and complicated. After the Qing Dynasty, it was more cumbersome, and sometimes there were vertical patterns. However, this Zhixian House did a lot of hard work on the facade, it was very elegant, only in the interior to match the status, a five-story room was set upstairs and an upstairs hall was set up to entertain guests.
Seeing the shape of the brick carving on the hoe, it is in harmony with the door eaves, and it seems that the details are also particular about it.
Fang Wentai House
Fang Wentai House is a brick-wood house in the middle and late Ming Dynasty. It was originally located in Shensha Village, Qiankou Township. 2 into 3 buildings.
The decoration of this room is more elaborate. In addition to the hopeful bricks, the rooms upstairs have ceilings. The hall was all painted, which belonged to the first-class wealthy homes of the time.
But on the facade, such a wealthy class is very simple and implicit.
Exquisite brick carving
Fangguantian House is a common house in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. It has 3 open brick-wood floors and has a compact and simple structure.
The door eaves decoration is also extremely plain.
Wu Jianhua's house is a house in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. The building is made of brick and wood. The door is not on the front side, but on the right corridor.
The shape of the eaves of this house is a little different from the previous ones. The eaves are small and slightly closed.
The facade of this house is obviously different from the residential houses above, because it is a place for sacrificing ancestors and entertainment and discussion for the elderly in the old days. It not only has the solemnity of the hall building, but also has the conditions required when the family is integrated.
Leshan Hall is also known as the "Bai Hall". It is built in the middle of the Ming Dynasty.
You can see from this name that this is not an ordinary house, but a shrine, so the gate is more grand and solemn.
This is the home temple built by the five grandsons of the early Jinle priests in the Ming Dynasty and the officials to give things to Wang Shan. Due to the emperor's words in the court, he was named Si Di.
It is one of the earlier buildings of the Hui Dynasty architecture in the Ming Dynasty, and the early brick and wood structure hall. The timber frame is made of large materials, with beautifully carved carvings of the shuttle post, moon beam, lotus pier, fork hand, single step fruit and bucket arch.
Caomen Hall is also the Ancestral Temple of Wang Family.
Is it weird, why is the last name wrong? Wang's Ancestral Hall is called Caomen Hall? Haha, that's because the owner has done all the government offices of the imperial court, hence the name.
Brick and wood structure, 9 open rooms, 21.03 wide across, 13.50 meters deep, 6.30 meters high. Hanging mountain house entry, the mountain is decorated with Bo wind wall. Some objects follow the "Zen-like" ancient methods of the Song and Yuan dynasties, retaining the charm of the Song and Yuan construction methods, and have important research value.
See the two round stone drums on both sides of the door? This has not been seen elsewhere. It is said that the height and representative status of Shigu are not much publicized by Wang's. They are extremely low-key.
Seeing the pair of stone drums, the style is the same as the small stone tower seen on the bank of Lingqu earlier, but it is more refined. The seemingly simple shape is simple, smooth and beautiful, blending with simplicity and generosity.
We have appreciated the facades, brick carvings and stone carvings of various types of homes. Now we are entering the inner courtyard. This is the view after entering the gate of Caomen Hall. It can be found that all the courtyards are built with wooden structures.
Here comes the look!
This main beam looks sturdy. Such thick wooden pillars bite into each other without an iron nail. That's how it stood firmly for hundreds of years. What spell was used?
In ancient China, carpenters preferred to use the tenon-and-mortise structure, which is a combination of you and me, and I have your connection method. The protruding part is called tenon (tenon), and the recessed part is called mortise (tenon). The mortise and tenon can be used to make up and down, left and right, thick and straight, reasonable connections, and everything. The clever use of this structure can be kept intact for a long time.
We entered the middle hall of Leshan Church and the middle hall of Chengren Church in Qingyuan below, and all the ancient buildings saw this kind of construction technology. It is the soul of furniture, the tenon-and-mortise structure, and the superman of ancient craftsmen. Wisdom and skill have enabled people thousands of years later to trace the footprints of their ancestors.
The inner courtyard is also a two-storey house with wooden craftsmanship.
Turning out from the middle hall, we saw one of the most local architectural landscapes in Huizhou architecture-the patio!
Presumably everyone knows the phrase "fat water does not flow outsiders' fields", but I don't know if it came from here.
There are patios in the front and rear of the Huizhou house. There are no windows on the outer wall of each building, and every family has a patio, which means the meaning of "Five Yueshui Chaotian, Four Waters Returning to the Church". In ancient times, Huizhou people gathered water, such as money, and chose to set up a patio, not only for the need of ventilation and lighting, but also for the auspiciousness of "fat and water not flowing out".
There are many patios in Huizhou architecture. Huizhou people also have the tradition of extended families, but they generally do not set up their own doors when they become a family. There can be many patios in the old house of a large family. It is said that there are giant mansions of "36 patios" and "72 patios".
The patios of the Hui School buildings are small in size, and the large houses are also equipped with very narrow patios. It is common sense that high walls match the courtyard, but in Huizhou people prefer small patios, especially private houses. The high wall surrounds the small patio, and the taste of the "well" stands out.
Guess what, what is this tip to watch out for stepping on an empty rectangular grooved platform?
The sloping roof around the patio shows the wisdom that rainwater does not flow outsiders' fields, and also keeps the moist inside the patio inadvertently converting this humidity into pleasant coolness in the summer; It forms a natural suction that pulls from the inside out, accelerating the convection of the air inside the house, like a natural air conditioner, for people to enjoy the coolness of the wind. It is said that this breathable function of Hui architecture is also regarded as the secret of Hui health, which is one of the secrets of Huizhou people's longevity.
This rectangular grooved platform in the patio is where rainwater is stored.
Sishuiguitang is one of the main characteristics of Hui architecture. In traditional Chinese philosophical theories, the patio is related to Cailu. The way of doing business is to focus on gathering wealth, create a patio, and gather the rain and dew from the sky. The four rivers return to the church, and the wealth of the four parties is like the water in the sky, flowing into their own homes. The return of the four rivers to the water, gathering water, gathering wealth, and gathering blessings, can be described as "seasons of wealth rolling in all directions and coming in all directions."
In the process of understanding the Huizhou folk houses, we can also see exquisite wood carvings everywhere. Among the "three carvings" in the architectural style of Hui people's residences are wood carvings, stone carvings, and brick carvings.
The carved balustrades that surround the front patio are decorated with wood carvings on the upper and lower five elements, which are engraved with flowers, birds, insects, fish, and animal patterns. There are openwork, openwork carvings and high reliefs, which have a hollowing effect and are layered. Exquisite sense,
An ordinary window will have elaborate composition and carving, which is not ambiguous at all.
Delicate door and window carvings. The windows upstairs are all removable for light transmission. The small lattice window is also known as the shame window. You can see the outside from the inside, but the inside cannot be seen. Girls from large households were not allowed to go outside at that time. When outsiders came, the girl had to open the window. Close it and quietly look inside from the inside.
The appearance of the Ming Dynasty building is very simple and simple, but when viewing the interior, it is found that the stone carving, wood carving, and brick carving are integrated into one. The materials are exquisite and the carving is exquisite, which looks magnificent. Wanting to come to the Ming Dynasty did not approve of showing off riches. The display of wealth and power through sculpture also reflected the thinking of Huizhou people as well as Confucianism and businessmen, as well as its subtle elegance.
A large number of wood carvings everywhere can make people dazzled. They will appear in various parts of the building. Fulu Shouxi implies a beautiful meaning, and its status is hidden, that is, elegant and elegant, and it also shows its achievements. It shows the attitude of life in the building. It is also this kind of thinking that has pushed the Confucian culture to the peak of Neo-Confucianism.
Step out of the house through a narrow corridor.
The distinctive features of Huizhou architecture are not only the pink wall and the tile, but also the uniquely shaped "horse head wall". This is very important, of course, it must be understood.
Horse head wall refers to the wall above the roof of the two gables. As the roof slopes layer by layer, the length of the slope is determined as a number of steps. The top of the wall is lined with three-line row eaves bricks, covered with small green tiles, and a wind board (golden flower board) is installed at the top of each stack head. Because it looks like a horse's head, it is called a "horse wall".
Can Huizhou people do this design on both sides of the wall?
That's because local people live very densely. This "horse head wall" plays a role of "fireproof, windproof and good-looking. It is symbolic"
Use it for fire protection, both beautiful and effective, smart!
The green branches cover the vicissitudes of the past five hundred years. How many children and grandchildren have there been in this quiet high house!
The flaming maple leaves brought a leap of color, and also brought life to these ancient homes.
The silent eaves, was also thinking silently about his former owner, I do not know where he is, do sounds and smiles remain in the memory of this house?
The colorful nature makes the ancient house courtyard lively and beautiful.
Maple leaves beckoned enthusiastically, as if someone would be welcoming guests in the room.
Qiankou ancient house, cultural heritage, came in the smoky rain of history, each piece of bluestone is a button, wood carvings are a page scroll. Telling memorable past events for future generations, treasure it carefully, and pass this brilliance to the next millennium, which is the wish of everyone!
Photo: Liu Shanglin
Editor's release: Translated by Liu Shanglin and Zhang Fang
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